In the preceding year, northern Sudanese oppositional forces, in alliance with the SPLA (Sudan People’s Liberation Army), invaded the Kurmuk region, up-river from the research area. I was advised not to come, because I might not receive a travel permit. ʿAwad Karim reports that in 1997, just as in 1996, the Mbororo stayed in the area from about the end August to early December before moving south again. The women, if they got a lift in a car, sold milk as far north as Abu Hujaar and Singa. Some women, including some with children, stayed around Singa and offer services such as fetching water. From the bus, I have seen herds of cattle in which the red and brown colours predominate. ʿAwad comments on this by pointing out that Mbororo have sold young bulls to traders. In both 1996 and 1997, the southern migration did not lead far beyond Damazin. Beyond that, land mines have been planted.